Brain imaging techniques Introduction to brain imaging techniques and other methods A number of techniques are available to investigate the question of how and where in the brain particular perceptual and cognitive processes occur. Tasks or tests can be devised that place varying levels of demand on the cognitive, sensory or motor capacities of the participant being tested.
Saul McLeodupdated The biological approach believes us to be as a consequence of our genetics and physiology. It is the only approach in psychology that examines thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a biological and thus physical point of view. Therefore, all that is psychological is first physiological.
A biological perspective is relevant to the study of psychology in three ways: This can help in the search to understand human behavior. For example, we could ask how prescribed drugs to treat depression affect behavior through their interaction with the nervous system.
For example, we might want to know whether high intelligence is inherited from one generation to the next. Each of these biological aspects, the comparative, the physiological i.
Investigation of Inheritance Twin studies provide geneticists with a kind of natural experiment in which the behavioral likeness of identical twins whose genetic relatedness is 1. In other words, if heredity i.
There are two types of twins: Research using twin studies looks for the degree of concordance or similarity between identical and fraternal i. Twins are concordant for a trait if both or neither of the twins exhibits the trait.
Twins are said to be disconcordant for a trait if one shows it, and the other does not. Identical twins have the same genetic make-up, and fraternal twins have just 50 per cent of genes in common.
Thus, if concordance rates which can range from 0 to are significantly higher for identical twins than for fraternal twins, then this is evidence that genetics play an important role in the expression of that particular behavior. Bouchard and McGue conducted a review of worldwide studies which compared the IQ of family members.
The correlation figures below represent the average degree of similarity between the two people the higher the similarity, the more similar the IQ scores.
For example, Bouchard and McGue included many poorly performed and biased studies in their meta-analysis.
Also, studies comparing the behavior of twin raised apart have been criticized as the twins often share similar environments and are sometimes raised by non-parental family member. Methods of Studying the Brain It is important to appreciate that the human brain is an extremely complicated piece of biological machinery.
The brain can influence many types of behavior. In addition to studying brain damaged patients, we can find out about the working of the brain in three other ways.
Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions.
Neuro Surgery We know so little about the brain and its functions are so closely integrated that brain surgery is usually only attempted as a last resort. This technique cured his epilepsy, but in the process the hippocampus had to be removed this is part of the limbic system in the middle of the brain.
So now we know the hippocampus is involved in memory. Electrodes are attached to the scalp and brain waves can be traced. During this, our brain waves begin to resemble those of our waking state though we are still fast asleep and it seems that this is when we dream whether we remember it or not.
Brain Scans More recently methods of studying the brain have been developed using various types of scanning equipment hooked up to powerful computers. Even more sophisticated is the PET scan Positron Emission Tomography which uses a radioactive marker as a way of studying the brain at work.
The procedure is based on the principle that the brain requires energy to function and that the regions more involved in the performance of a task will use up more energy.
What the scan, therefore, enables researchers to do is to provide ongoing pictures of the brain as it engages in mental activity.
These and other methods for producing images of brain structure and functioning have been extensively used to study language and PET scans, in particular, are producing evidence that suggests that the Wernicke-Gerschwind model may not after all be the answer to the question of how language is possible.
History of The Biological Approach The Voyage of the Beagle - - Darwin formulated his theory of natural selection through observing animals while traveling the world.
Phineas Gage brain injury case study provides neuroscience with significant information regarding the working of the brain.Reliability and validity in research 00 was commonly defined as ‘the scientific study of behaviour’ (Sdorow, ).
This view was dominant until the s, when as scanning devices that could capture images of the human brain while participants engaged in . The brain is seen as the organ that has the closest and most profound connections to the personhood of the individual – his character traits and behaviour.
This has even led some philosophers and scientists to claim that the self is merely an epiphenomenon of the brain. Doctors and scientists once had to wait until autopsy to examine the brain, and psychologists had to deduce from behaviour where the brain was injured.
Now they can study detailed three-dimensional images of the brain to spot problems, to understand what happens during tasks, thoughts and emotions and to assess the effectiveness of . Brain lesion studies have been criticised for producing partly heterogeneous results; especially the validity of statistical voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping has been discussed.
Scientists have only just “scratched the surface” of understanding the many functions of the workings of the human brain. The brain can influence many types of behavior. methods for producing images of brain structure and functioning have been extensively used to study language and PET scans, in particular, are producing evidence that.
a type of brain scanning that provides information about which areas of the brain are active when a person performs a particular behaviour Electroencephalogram(or EEG) which measures patterns of brain activity with the use of multiple electrodes attached to the scalp.