Definition[ edit ] Guidelines for assigning authorship vary between institutions and disciplines. They may be formally defined or simply cultural custom.
Why Authorship Matters Authorship confers credit and has important academic, social, and financial implications. Authorship also implies responsibility and accountability for published work.
The following recommendations are intended to ensure that contributors who have made substantive intellectual contributions to a paper are given credit as authors, but also that contributors credited as authors understand their role in taking responsibility and being accountable for what is published.
Because authorship does not communicate what contributions qualified an individual to be an author, some journals now request and publish information about the contributions of each person named as having participated in a submitted study, at least for original research.
Editors are strongly encouraged to develop and implement a contributorship policy. Such policies remove much of the ambiguity surrounding contributions, but leave unresolved the question of the quantity and quality of contribution that qualify an individual for authorship.
The ICMJE has thus developed criteria for authorship that can be used by all journals, including those that distinguish authors from other contributors.
Who Is an Author? Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND Final approval of the version to be published; AND Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.
All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors.
Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged—see Section II. These authorship criteria are intended to reserve the status of authorship for those who deserve credit and can take responsibility for the work. The criteria are not intended for use as a means to disqualify colleagues from authorship who otherwise meet authorship criteria by denying them the opportunity to meet criterion s 2 or 3.
Therefore, all individuals who meet the first criterion should have the opportunity to participate in the review, drafting, and final approval of the manuscript.
The individuals who conduct the work are responsible for identifying who meets these criteria and ideally should do so when planning the work, making modifications as appropriate as the work progresses. It is the collective responsibility of the authors, not the journal to which the work is submitted, to determine that all people named as authors meet all four criteria; it is not the role of journal editors to determine who qualifies or does not qualify for authorship or to arbitrate authorship conflicts.
If agreement cannot be reached about who qualifies for authorship, the institution s where the work was performed, not the journal editor, should be asked to investigate. If authors request removal or addition of an author after manuscript submission or publication, journal editors should seek an explanation and signed statement of agreement for the requested change from all listed authors and from the author to be removed or added.
The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely way, and should be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information should questions about the paper arise after publication.
Although the corresponding author has primary responsibility for correspondence with the journal, the ICMJE recommends that editors send copies of all correspondence to all listed authors. When a large multi-author group has conducted the work, the group ideally should decide who will be an author before the work is started and confirm who is an author before submitting the manuscript for publication.The “Statement of Original Authorship” should be made along the following lines: “The work contained in this thesis has not been previously submitted to meet requirements for an.
Academic authorship of journal articles, books, and other original works is a means by which academics communicate the results of their scholarly work, establish priority for their discoveries, and build their reputation among their peers.
Authorship confers credit and has important academic, social, and financial implications. at least for original research. Editors are strongly encouraged to develop and implement a contributorship policy. journal editors should seek an explanation and signed statement of agreement for the requested change from all listed authors and.
See the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) statement on Sponsorship, Authorship, and Accountability. Corresponding Author While it is possible to name two first authors, one author must be designated as the corresponding author when submitting an article.
Statement of Original Authorship. Are you registered as having special needs? I certify that this is my own work and that the use of material from other sources has been properly and fully acknowledged in . Higher Degree Research Thesis by Publication. University of New England.
STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY (To appear at the end of each thesis chapter submitted as an article/paper).