A systems network approach for climate change vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability to climate change is a product of biophysical and social dynamics. A dearth of integrated quantitative assessments is a major barrier for decision-makers who require quantitative outputs and indicators, which can measure where vulnerability is most severe and can be linked to climate projections. Our framework and analysis helps address such gaps by identifying variables to build climate change vulnerability indices, which we pilot here focusing on Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic.
Beckman, and Terence J. Without the availability of the historical documentary records the long-term variability of the Sun implied by the Maunder Minimum would not have come to light, and the consequent advances in stellar physics and in palaeoclimatology would not have been possible.
One familiar factor is the effect of solar activity on short-wave radio communications. During sunspot maximum high-energy protons and alpha particles from the Sun affect the ionosphere, reducing its effectivity as a mirror from which short radio waves are reflected round the world, disrupting transmissions for days at a time.
The association with the presence of large numbers of dark spots on the solar disc is widely known, and well understood, and it is also clear that such maxima repeat every 10 or 11 years, with minima between them.
More specialized is the knowledge that this cycle was discovered only some years ago by Schwabeand put on a firm observational basis during the last century by Wolfand subsequent papers, summarized in Waldmeier If this is accepted as true, it has strong implications for our ideas of how magnetic fields in stars are produced.
Of more impact, it might go some of the way, even all of the way, to explaining the observed pattern of global warming of the Earth in the last decades of the 20th century.
Since it would not have been possible to study solar phenomena in the 17th century without the appropriate records, the importance of such records in this case ought to be readily apparent.
The reason for the remaining discussion is to give sufficient detail to show how well founded in fact is the proposition that sunspot activity was virtually absent for some 70 years during the period cited.
If there are doubts due to inadequacy of the record these can only serve to reinforce the importance of maintaining complete archives in the general case, and any debate within our presentation is confined to the climatic significance of the findings, rather than dealing with the relevance of archive material, which we regard as obvious.
Sunspots in the late 17th Century: Evidence of Absence, or Absence of Evidence? We now know that aurorae are caused by sub-atomic particles emitted by the Sun during releases of magnetic energy which often accompany sunspots. Much later, Maunder found a note by Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal, describing a sunspot seen at Greenwich inin which Flamsteed says that it is the first he had seen since Flamsteed made several other references to this spot and to his solar observations in general in his correspondence, the definitive edition of which is now nearing completion Flamsteed This scepticism, first propounded by Herschelwas pressed strongly by Luby ; both claimed that the main reason for few reports of sunspots from to was that people were not observing the Sun, or at any rate not systematically.
Eddy set out to show that this had not in fact been the case. Flamsteed was also a persistent solar observer between and He found less than 50, whereas in any typical year interval during the past hundred years there have been between 40, and 50, spots reported.
As well as the low levels of activity beforethere are well attested reports, notably by La Hire in France and Derham in England, of the surge in sunspot activity which occurred during and after that year, in which sunspots returned to the solar surface in the quantities which we take to be normal today.
Indirect supporting evidence for the absence of activity in the late 17th century, and of its resurgence in the early 18th century, comes from the record of auroral sightings.
By his paper in Science, Eddy succeeded in convincing many researchers that there was real evidence for the sunspot absence in the Maunder Minimum period and incidentally coined the term Maunder Minimum by which the period has become known, and which proved a neat sales slogan.
His article did add some interesting extra touches, such as an attempt to show that the solar corona at eclipse during the period was strongly suppressed compared with its present exhibition of major streamers. He also looked at the tree-ring 14C record, using the hypothesis that in the absence of solar activity the high energy cosmic rays which produce 14C in the atmosphere penetrate to circumterrestrial space in greater fluxes, being less repelled by the solar wind.
One would expect higher levels of 14C in rings formed during sunspot minimum, at the present epoch, and a fortiori in rings formed during the prolonged Maunder Minimum.Research Paper August 5 It is hoped that the paper will prompt discussions on the topics of climate change, resource sustainability and risk management and willencourage members of .
Nov 08, · Shock Waves: Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty. Ending poverty and stabilizing climate change will be two unprecedented global achievements and two major steps toward sustainable development. But the two objectives cannot be considered in isolation: they need to be jointly tackled through an integrated strategy.
Latest news and information from the World Bank and its development work on Climate Change. Access facts, statistics, project information, development research from experts and latest news about Climate Change. Climate Change research papers examine the records and geological evidence of change in weather patterns.
At its most basic level, climate change refers to any change in weather patterns that has been recorded over an extended period of time.
Free Research Paper on Climate Change: Climate is the set of features of the weather perceptible to us such as temperature, windiness, rainfall, and humidity (Climate Change, Encyclopaedia Britannica). Climate change concerns may be creating a greater environmental consciousness and in that way create a supportive environment for policies like sustainability and percent waste cleanup.
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