Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structure.
You can help by adding to it. April In redlip blenniesonly the male fish develops an organ at the anal-urogenital region that produces antimicrobial substances. During parental care, males rub their anal-urogenital regions over their nests' internal surfaces, thereby protecting their eggs from microbial infections, one of the most common causes for mortality in young fish.
Catasetum orchids are one interesting exception to this rule. Male Catasetum orchids violently attach pollinia to euglossine bee pollinators. The bees will then avoid other male flowers but may visit the female, which looks different from the males.
Some plants, such as some species of Geranium have what amounts to serial sexual dimorphism.
The flowers of such species might for example present their anthers on opening, then shed the exhausted anthers after a day or two and perhaps change their colours as well while the pistil matures; specialist pollinators are very much inclined to concentrate on the exact appearance of the flowers they serve, which saves their time and effort and serves the interests of the plant accordingly.
Some such plants go even further and change their appearance again once they have been fertilised, thereby discouraging further visits from pollinators. This is advantageous to both parties because it avoids damage to the developing fruit and avoids wasting the pollinator's effort on unrewarding visits.
In effect the strategy ensures that the pollinators can expect a reward every time they visit an appropriately advertising flower.
Females of the aquatic plant Vallisneria americana have floating flowers attached by a long flower stalk that are fertilized if they contact one of the thousands of free floating flowers released by a male.
This can be seen in Cannabis sativaa type of hemp, which have higher photosynthesis rates in males while growing but higher rates in females once the plants become sexually mature. The seed actually is the offspring of the haploid generation of microgametophytes pollen and megagametophytes the embryo sacs in the ovules.
Each pollen grain accordingly may be seen as a male plant in its own right; it produces a sperm cell and is dramatically different from the female plant, the megagametophyte that produces the female gamete. Anthocharis cardamines male is brightly coloured.
Anthocharis cardamines female Insects display a wide variety of sexual dimorphism between taxa including size, ornamentation and coloration. This is seen in the bee species Macrotera portalis in which there is a small-headed morph, capable of flight, and large-headed morph, incapable of flight, for males.
The selection for larger size in males rather than females in this species may have resulted due to their aggressive territorial behavior and subsequent differential mating success.
Andrena agilissima is a mining bee where the females only have a slightly larger head than the males.
Copris ochus also has distinct sexual and male dimorphism in head horns. In butterfly genera Bicyclus and Junonia, dimorphic wing patterns evolved due to sex-limited expression, which mediates the intralocus sexual conflict and leads to increased fitness in males.
In the size dimorphic wolf spiderfood-limited females cannibalize more frequently. All Argiope species, including Argiope bruennichiuse this method. Some males evolved ornamentation[ vague ] including binding the female with silk, having proportionally longer legs, modifying the female's web, mating while the female is feeding, or providing a nuptial gift in response to sexual cannibalism.
Fairbairn notes that "females are generally larger than males but males are often larger in species with male-male combat or male paternal care An example is Lamprologus callipterusa type of cichlid fish. In this fish, the males are characterized as being up to 60 times larger than the females.
The male's increased size is believed to be advantageous because males collect and defend empty snail shells in each of which a female breeds. The female's body size must remain small because in order for her to breed, she must lay her eggs inside the empty shells.
If she grows too large, she will not fit in the shells and will be unable to breed. Another example is the dragonetin which males are considerably larger than females and possess longer fins.
The female's small body size is also likely beneficial to her chances of finding an unoccupied shell.Lab 4: Chemical and Physical Changes. Distinguish between physical and chemical changes. Objective 4: Conduct experiments and determine if a physical or chemical change occurred.
Applications for Physical and Chemical Changes. Physical Change Desired: Air Conditioning. Determine if each is a physical or chemical change.
A. A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time. ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence.
Here are some examples of physical changes and chemical changes, along with an explanation of how you can tell physical and chemical changes apart.
Nov 07, · Subject MCAT Outline of Topics: Summary Difference in content between the old MCAT and the current MCAT format; MCAT Biology. DNA, genetics, evolution, biotechnology, eukaryotic cell, prokaryotes vs.
eukaryotes, viruses, reproductive system, embryology, nervous system, endocrine system, circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, immune system, lymphatic system, . Sexual Reproduction Any process of reproduction that does involve the fusion of gametes. Shale Fine grained sedimentary rock composed of lithified clay particles.
Shear Stress Stress caused by forces operating parallel to each other but in opposite directions.