Who are the Eldar? Do you like this video? They are capricious and fickle, attacking without cause or warning.
Physical characteristics[ edit ] Dog knee This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message Like most predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance and teeth for catching, holding, and tearing.
The dog's skeleton provides the ability to jump and leap. Their legs can propel them forward rapidly, leaping as necessary to chase and overcome prey. They have small, tight feet, walking on their toes thus having a digitigrade stance and locomotion.
Their rear legs are fairly rigid and sturdy. The front legs are loose and flexible with only muscle attaching them to the torso. The dog's muzzle size will come with the breed.
The sizes of the muzzle have different names. Dogs with medium muzzles, such as the German Shepherd Dog, are called mesocephalic and dogs with a pushed in muzzle, such as the Pug, are called brachycephalic.
Dwarfism has affected the proportions of some breeds' skeletons, as in the Basset Hound. All dogs and all living Canidae have a ligament connecting the spinous process of their first thoracic or chest vertebra to the back of the axis bone second cervical or neck bonewhich supports the weight of the head without active muscle exertion, thus saving energy.
They walk on four toes, front and back, and have vestigial dewclaws on their front legs and on their rear legs. When a dog has extra dewclaws in addition to the usual one in the rear, the dog is said to be "double dewclawed.
Dogs are highly variable in height and weight. The smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier that stood only 6. The largest known adult dog was an English Mastiff which weighed The study found a regulatory sequence next to the gene Insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF1 and together with the gene and regulatory sequence "is a major contributor to body size in all small dogs.
Coat dog Montage showing the coat variation of the dog. Domestic dogs often display the remnants of countershading, a common natural camouflage pattern.
The general theory of countershading is that an animal that is lit from above will appear lighter on its upper half and darker on its lower half where it will usually be in its own shade.
A counter shaded animal will have dark coloring on its upper surfaces and light coloring below.
One reminder of this pattern is that many breeds will have the occasional "blaze", stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or undersides. One version produces yellow dogs and a mutation produces black. All dog coat colors are modifications of black or yellow. Modern dog breeds exhibit a diverse array of fur coats, including dogs without fur, such as the Mexican Hairless Dog.
Dog coats vary in texture, color, and markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe each characteristic. In some breeds, the tail is traditionally docked to avoid injuries especially for hunting dogs. Footpad[ edit ] Dogs can stand, walk and run on snow and ice for long periods of time.
When a dog's footpad is exposed to the cold, heat loss is prevented by an adaptation of the blood system that recirculates heat back into the body.
It brings blood from the skin surface and retains warm blood in the pad surface. However, in many dogs, the dewclaws never make contact with the ground. In this case, the dewclaw's nail never wears away and it is then often trimmed to keep it to a safe length.
The dewclaws are not dead appendages. They can be used to lightly grip bones and other items that dogs hold with their paws. However, in some dogs, these claws may not appear to be connected to the leg at all except by a flap of skin.Describe the external [gross] and internal anatomy of the kidney, its coverings and location in the body Bean shaped, located retroperitoneal in superior lumbar region Renal hilum - .
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Sep 19, · The lymphatic system is unique, in that it is a 1-way system that returns lymph fluid via vessels to the cardiovascular system for eventual elimination of toxic byproducts by end organs, such as the kidney, liver, colon, skin, and lungs.
Gross Anatomy. Lymph. Lymph is a fluid derived from blood plasma. It is pushed out through. Describe the gross anatomy of the kidney and its coverings. •The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that lie retroperitoneal in the superior lumbar region.
•The medial surface is concave and has a renal hilus that leads into a renal sinus, where the blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics lie.
External Anatomy. The left kidney is located at about the T12 to L3 vertebrae, whereas the right is lower due to slight displacement by the liver.
Upper portions of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs (). Each kidney weighs about – g in males and – g in females. Heart chambers and associated great vessels. The heart has four chambers – two superior atria and two inferior ventricles.
The internal partition that divides the heart longitudinally is called the interatrial septum where it separates the atria, and the interventricular septum where is separates the ventricles. The right ventricle forms most of the anterior surface of the heart, while the left ventricle forms the heart apex.